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高中英语非谓语动词归纳

非谓语动词在句子中可以作主语,宾语,定语,状语,补语和表语六种。现根据在句子中的成分不同把它们归纳成六类。


一. 主语


1. doing;主动的,抽象的,规律性的,一般的,延续性的动作,其被动态being done


2. to do;主动,具体的,一次性的,短暂性的,尚未发生的动作,其被动态to be done


Eg; Reading calls for patience and perseverance.


To have a walk along the river after supper is such fun.


3.注意;① to do 经常用it作形式主语替代逻辑主语放在句首,而真正的逻辑主语放在句末。


其一般形式有a.it’s +adj+to do sth b.it +vt +o(宾语)+ to do sth。


Eg; It’s important to have a good eye sight ,as it’s known to us .


It took me 3 days to finish the task.


②it作形式主语替代doing的几个结构;it’s no use/useless .it’s waste of time .it’s no good 等。


Eg; It’s no use crying over the spilt milk.覆水难收


③范例;


(1) to the sun for too long contributes to the harm to the skin.


A .Being exposed B.Exposed C.Having exposed D.To exposed


解析;选A。可能误选B。误认句子缺少状语,但观察可以发现若是作状语的话,那么句子就没有主语了。 判断方法;划分句子的主谓宾。


3. 动名词的复合结构;one’s doing /being done


Eg.My sister’s being ill made us all worried =That my sister was ill made us all worried.


4. 迁移;若主语与to do中的do 存在动宾关系,且形容词是hard. difficult 之类的,那么do用主动态表示被动态。


Eg ;The question is hard to answer.


二. 宾语


1. 总结;doing;长期性的动作,其他的同上,被动态为being done。


to do ;短暂性的,已完成的动作,其他的同上,被动态为to be done。


2.,几种类型;①大部分动词+to do


②只加doing的;imagine.avoid.mistake.delay.deny.risk.mind.appreciate.escape等。


③既可以加doing又可以加to do的,但意思不同的;regret remember forget admit等(这些动词后面也可以加having done,其意思和加doing的时候一样)


④加doingd的时候表被动;need want require 等,这种情况下句子的主语一般是物。


⑤一般情况下两者可以互换但某些情况下不能;start/begin,like/enjoy/love等,前者在句子主语是物的时候只能用to do(当然这只是其中一种情况了,还有其他的注意点),而后者加to do时表示暂时的兴趣,而表示doing长久的兴趣.


Eg;I like swimming,and I enjoy to run these days.(我一直都很喜欢游泳,但是我这段时间又喜欢跑步了,后者是暂时的兴趣,将来是否还喜欢就不知道了)


3.动名词的复合结构;①vt + one’s doing(mind,imagine,find等),另外这类动词还可以将one’s改成宾语,即doing变成了宾补了


②介词+one’s doing/o+doing


Eg;Would you mind my/me opening the window?


The sound of the desks/desks’ being knocked can be heard from the street in usual days,but strangely I can’t heard it!


③there to do/doing


Eg; I prefer(宁愿) there to be no persons present today,I feel so nervous to speak in front of so many people.


4.不定式/动名词的完成式;表示宾语的动作先于谓语的动作发生,形式为to have done/ to have been done,having done/having been done。


Eg;Yesterday when the Smiths come to vist us,we happened to have go out.(出去这个动作是发生在拜访之前的)


* 注意;下列动词的不定式的完成式表示虚拟,表示原打算做的动作却没有发生的


plan/ intend /prefer/mean(打算)/be to=had done+to do等


Eg;We intended to have gone to the concert,but the heavy rain hold us off.


5. it 作形式宾语;find /make/think等+it +to do sth


Eg; I think it useful to master computer technology.


6. 不定式的进行式:to be doing,表示宾语的动作与谓语同时发生。


Eg:When the teacher came in , Jhon pretended to be reading.


三. 定语(分为前置定语和后置定语)


1..①doing;主动的,正在进行的,表功用,长期,延续的,一般性的动作


Eg; the walking stick(表功用) the man sitting at the table(正在进行的)


②being done;被动的,其他的同上


Eg;The issue being discussed at the meeting becomes a hot topic in the company.


③to do;主动的,尚未发生的,解释所修饰的名词,具体的动作


Eg; The person to speak in the class tonight set off everyone’s curiosity.


His attempt to escape from the prison failed again.


④done;被动态,表示已完成,或规律性的动作


Eg;a fallen leaf


The flowers sent to teachers on Sep.10th every year are always sold out very early.


2.注意①所修饰名词与定语存在动宾关系式,若定语中do是不及物动词的话,那么要在它的背后不上介词,但是若所修饰名词为space,room,nature时则不能加介词。


Eg;Please give me a pen to write in.


There’s no space for me to stand.


四. 状语


(一) 分词作状语


① doing;主动,状语与主句的动作同时发生或前后间隔的时间很短,一般性的动作,否定形式是not doin


Eg;Hearing the cry for help,he rushed out to see what had happened.


② having done;主动,状语的动作先于主句发生,一般性,延续性动作,否定形式是not having done.


③ having been done;被动,可与done互换


④ done;已完成


⑤ being done;表原因,且done多为表示心理状态的动词


Eg;Being excited ,he burst into laughter.


但要注意,若句子中直接出现done的话,且表示了主语的心理状态,且与主句的动作伴随发生,那么它不是伴随状语,而是主补


Eg;Excited and surprised, he stood up in other guests’ applause,(他站起来的时候是既兴奋又惊讶的,而不是因为惊讶和兴奋而站起来的)


⑥ to do ;目的状语,与only连用时表示意想不到的结果,尚未发生的动作(doing是表示意料之中的结果)


Eg;He rushed to the station ,only to find the train had gone.


He was lost in his work, only stopping to have a drink.


2.独立主格结构(与分词连用)


①规律;状语和主句的主语不同,在状语前补上自己的逻辑主语。


Eg:Mike having cheated in the exam,the teacher felt angry with him.


②几种特殊结构;(1)it being(这里的it的用法为它的模糊功能,如指代天气等)


(2 )there being /to be


(3)with+ o+oc(doing /to do /being done /to be done /介词/adv/adj/n)


(4)主动表被动


Eg:It being sunny,we went out for a picnic.(it指代天气)


There being no bus, we had to walk home.


The teacher came into the classroom,(with a) book in (his) hand.


Weather permitting,we will go hiking.


3.注意;①被动形式但是表示的是主动的意思的词组:be located in ,be seated in/at,be devoted to,be lost /absorbed in,be occupied with,be charged with,be accused of, be supposed to等。


Eg:Devoted/Devoting himself to the medicine ,Doctor Henry has struggled for the career for his whole life.


②与连词的省略结构区别和联系,后者的用法和分词作状语及独立主格结构相似,不同的是后者没有having done和having been done结构。


Eg;When passing/you pass the street ,you should be more careful.


He found he needed to buy a stamp when passing/he passed the post office yesterday.


When choosing clothes, it needs insight.


五. 补语


(一) 主补:①用形容词修饰主语 He went school hungry. They came back safe and sound.


②几种结构;(1)sb/sth be said/reported/known to do(表示主补的动作与谓语的动作同时发生或一般规律性的动作)to have done(表示主补的动作先于谓语的动作发生)


Eg:The temple was said to have been built in the Ming Dynasty.


Brazilian are known to play soccer well.


(2)由宾补转化来的大部分动词,凡是在被动句中原先主动句的宾补转化为主补,根据这一规律,判断时可将被动句还原成主动句再进行判断。


Eg;The missing boy was last seen playing near the river.


方法:可在句子的背后补上by people,再将句子转化为主动句,此时可知失踪的男孩在被发现的那一刻是正在河边玩的,故应用playing。


(二) 宾补:①have sb /sth do(已完成或一次性动作)/done(被动,已完成)/doing(一直在做或处于某种状态)


Eg:Have you seen the ad I had the publisher put yesterday?(put是一次性已完成的动作)


I will have you tacked on the wall if you keep on laughing me.


The cruel boss have the little boy working all day long.


②make等系动词/let,have+o+do/done 使…怎么样


Eg:He had to raise his voice to make himself heard clearly by others.


Let’s go,guys!


③find/see/keep等+o+ +doing(正在进行的动作或延续性的动作)/done(被动态, 已完成)see+o+do(表示已完成的规律性动作或短暂性的)


Eg:When I was young I always saw my grandma sing.


We were frightened to find Jack being attacked by a tiger whale.


④get +o+done(已完成)/to do(尚未发生)


Eg;The workers failed to get the elephant gone,and had to call the experts to move it away.


⑤大部分动词+o+to do


Eg:He asked me to do the task.


(三)注意:1.诸如make等用do或done作宾补的使役动词在转化成被动句时要在do前面加上to,即to要还原。


Eg:I was made to work all day,but I felt it intresting.


2.宾补与双宾的区别在于前者中非谓语动词的执行者是宾语,而后者则是主语。


Eg;My brother promised me to join the army.(双宾,参军的是我哥哥)


My brother asked me to buy him a book.(宾补,买书的是我)


六. 表语(与系动词连用)


1. doing:正在进行,规律性,状态


2. to do:尚未发生,具体的动作


3. done:状态,被动态


Eg: My dream was to become a teacher when I grow up.


The movie was so moving that many people couldn’t help crying.


I am tired and I want to sleep now.


4.注意:当一个主语从句中有to do 而主句的表语又为to do 时,表语的to do 可以省略。


Eg:What I am going to do is leave here and return for my home .


说明:在只列出doing /to do的用法中,其被动态也可以用的。


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